Cooperative Groups: INTERDEPENDENCE
How successful are your cooperative groups? Do you struggle with some students doing all of the work while others sit back? Well, Dr. Spencer Kagan has devoted years of research and development to Cooperative Learning structures. Throughout his studies, he identified four basic principles symbolized by the acronym PIES. (Positive Interdependence, Individual Accountability, Equal Participation, Simultaneous Interaction). Each principle has critical questions that help you determine if that structure is in place, in order to MAXIMIZE ACTIVE ENGAGEMENT within your classroom.
For a group to function, positive interdependence must be in place. Think about these two questions:
- Does the success of one benefit others? (positive)
- Is everyone’s contribution necessary? (interdependence)
Students must feel a sense of TEAM as they encourage and help each other within the group. This is important to continually build within your classroom culture. However, interdependence goes a step further and makes the contribution of one necessary for the success of another, so students need each other to do well. When planning, it is important that we place students in situations in which they cannot reach their goal without the contributions of others; the contribution of one is necessary for the success of the other.
Creating a team culture in your classroom, as well as selecting good cooperative structures, can make a huge difference in classroom management and the success of your scholars. When goal setting for next year, you might consider learning more about collaborative structures as a goal.